The new charge will be applied during 7am to 6pm weekday hours and comes on top of the existing congestion charge of 11.50 pounds, which has been in place since 2003.
The new "T-charge" applies to both diesel and gasoline vehicles that do not meet the Euro 4 emission standards outlined by the European Commission.
The T-Charge is an additional cost, taking the total to £21.50.
A report last week found that pollution is killing 50,000 people in the United Kingdom each year, with the chief executive of the British Lung Foundation saying air pollution is reaching "crisis point worldwide".
Nissan halts domestic production after improper inspections
In addition to the 1.2 million recalled, Nissan now says there is about 34,000 additional vehicles that need inspection.
Hopefully the introduction of the T-charge - ahead of a wider Ultra Low Emission Zone - will help spark a change in drivers' mindsets and set an ambitious example for other cities.
Shaun Bailey, Conservative London Assembly member and menber of the Environment Committee, says NO..
In a move that will affect some fresh produce suppliers in the capital, drivers of the most polluting vehicles now have to pay nearly twice as much to enter the centre of London.
The owners of older, polluting cars will now have to pay $28 just to enter central London.
"The Ultra-Low Emissions Zone, plus this means that by 2020 - the end of my first term - [there will be a] 50% reduction in nox and particulate matters in Central London", he said. Children are particularly at risk due to their developing lungs.