Putin also said Sarmat could carry an array of warheads capable of dodging missile defenses.
The test was carried out at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, as spaceport in the west of Russian Federation.
Russia's ministry of defence shared a video of the launch on Twitter, with the Sarmat missile set to replace the Soviet-era Veovoda missile.
The Sarmat was among the arsenal of new "invincible" nuclear weapons that Russia's president, Vladimir Putin, touted in a speech in March and that included a nuclear-powered cruise missile and a hypersonic intercontinental missile. The first took place towards the end of past year.
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Putin has made much of developing such "invincible" systems as a counter to costly U.S. missile defense programs. The ministry said the trial had confirmed its pre-launch and first flight stage characteristics, Xinhua news agency reported. Russian state-run news agency TASS reported in 2016 that the missile would have a range of more than 11,000 km and its warhead would weigh 100 tonnes.
President Putin unveiled a suite of other weapons during his speech, including a supersonic weapon that can not be tracked by anti-missile systems.
"Missile defenses will be useless against it", he added. "No one listened before, so listen to Russian Federation now", Putin said.
"Any use of nuclear weapons against Russian Federation or its allies, be it small-scale, medium-scale or any other scale, will be treated as a nuclear attack on our country", Putin said. Amid this chaos, Trump still congratulated Putin on his election win. Trump last week said that he expected to meet with Putin in the not-too-distant future to discuss the issue.