Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has claimed responsibility for a suicide bomb attack outside a police building in Indonesia's second-largest city of Surabaya.
The families responsible for the suicide bombings in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, both in East Java, prohibited their children from receiving formal education so they could more easily instill them with radical ideologies, the police revealed on Tuesday.
In the case of the family of six who targeted three churches in Surabaya on Sunday, East Java Police Chief Machfud Arifin today said that the kids' upbringing were different to that of most children their age.
The mother targeted one church alongside her two daughters, aged nine and 12, while the father and two sons attacked two other churches.
The first suicide bomb attack took place at 7.30 a.m. on Sunday at the Santa Maria Tak Bercela Catholic Church in Jalan Ngagel, Surabaya.
President Joko Widodo branded the attacks in Surabaya the "act of cowards", and pledged to push through a new anti-terrorism bill to combat terrorist networks.
Officials also believe Dita's family was among 500 Indonesians recently returned from Syria who had gone to the Middle East to fight with Islamic State and that they had spent some time with the terrorist group learning about terrorism tactics and bomb making.
The Islamic State has claimed responsibility for the attacks, describing each of the bombings as a "martyrdom" operation carried out by three modes of attack: a vehicle bomb, a suicide vest and a motorcycle-borne bomb.
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Church bomber Oepriarto's "family is linked to another family", said Karnavian on Monday night, declining to name them as authorities were trying to track them down.
The use of children in the attacks was "absolutely unprecedented" in the region, he said, and speaks to the "ideological indoctrination" of JAD.
In a Facebook post, Minister of Defence Ng Eng Hen urges Singaporeans and said that, "The SAF will thwart and deal with such attacks but to counter the threat of terrorism, all sectors of our society must stand up for unity amid racial and religious harmony". Its leaders were killed in police raids and hundreds of militants were arrested.
The coordinated attacks in Surabaya with their mix of military-grade explosives, and women and children being used as cover for suicide bombings, suggest a rising level of tactical sophistication in Indonesia's terrorists.
According to CNN, Indonesia has seen an increase in terrorist attacks beginning in 2014, mirroring an earlier trend in 2001.
Police in Indonesia say the latest bombings in Surabaya may have been motivated by last week's clashes at a high-security detention center where members of a local militant organization are being held. Based on their remains, Karnavian said the mother and daughters were all wearing explosives around their waists.
"Because their leaders are detained, their groups could be retaliating", said Karnavian.
At Surabaya Centre Pentecostal Church, Futrianto then drove his vehicle onto the church grounds and detonated explosives.