After the biggest defeat for any British government in well over a century, May promised to consult with senior lawmakers on future moves, but gave little indication of what she plans to do next. The result means Britain could now be heading for a Norway-style deal.
Mr Corbyn's spokesman said Mrs May must recognise the "reality" facing her Withdrawal Agreement.
"I could not vote for a deal that does not represent the interests of the people I was elected to represent".
What was the result of the vote?
In some respects, the point of holding the vote wasn't to win it, but to drag MPs into the open and make clear to the European Union the strength of opposition to May's deal.
The defeat was widely expected, but the scale of the House of Commons' vote - 432 votes against the government and 202 in support - was devastating for May's fragile leadership. "At every turn the prime minister has closed the door on dialogue", Corbyn said.
Under the terms of an amendment adopted last week, May must return to parliament on Monday-which she has pledged to do-and outline the government's next steps. There is now no support in parliament for any form of deal, which makes a "no-deal Brexit" the default option.
What has the opposition said?
Jeremy Corbyn, the leader of the Labour party, had called for motion just after Tuesday's resounding vote against the Brexit deal that May had negotiated with the EU. This vote will occur on Wednesday, Jan. 16.
If a majority of MPs vote for the motion of no confidence it starts a 14-day countdown.
Inside, the government and opposition parties ordered lawmakers to cancel all other plans to be on hand for the crucial vote.
If Corbyn succeeds with his no-confidence vote, he might then be able to force May's resignation and trigger a general election to oust Conservatives from power, though at the moment that appears unlikely.
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A surprising new poll reported how many Americans believe that the 70 percent tax rate for the top income margin is a good idea. But the second vote will likely be akin to a rubber stamp now that the steering committee has already approved her membership.
The DUP's Nigel Dodds said the confidence vote highlighted the importance of the confidence-and-supply agreement in place, while Labour MPs made a gesture in his direction indicating money.
Meanwhile, EU leaders have chose to wait and see what May can come up with in her post-vote negotiations.
What has the European Union said? Earlier this week, European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker and European Council President Donald Tusk sent a letter in response to May's correspondence that provided political assurances.
French President Emmanuel Macron suggested after May's fiasco on Tuesday that the European Union might be willing to tweak a few minor points - but only if they did not alter the bloc's existing position on trade and borders. Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said it was the "only credible option".
She added: "There can be no deal, faced with such a stark outlook, for politicians to focus on working together to take any and all measures possible to ensure British consumers are not in the direct firing line of the consequences of food and drink supply chain chaos and the price rises that will inevitably ensue".
According to the federation, called FEVS, Britain is France's second-biggest destination for exports of spirits and wine and France imports a large quantity of British spirits.
Corbyn, a long-time Eurosceptic, has also been reticent; he prefers a general election in the hopes of becoming prime minister and negotiating a "better" deal.
The dramatic, if not unexpected, events in the House of Commons marked another watershed for a country that used to be a pillar of democratic stability and is now at the mercy of the divisions sown by the 2016 referendum to leave Europe's common market after 46 years of membership.
Around 45 of them gathered outside Parliament on Wednesday morning to display a banner reading: "Labour MPs, MEPs, conference and members agree - The people should have the final say".
All 27 European Union leaders would have to sign off a Brexit date postponement in case May requests one - something she has until now refused to do.
A delay would likely also be needed in the event of two other possible scenarios: a general election, or a second referendum. If nothing happens, the United Kingdom will by default leave without a deal. And the bloc's highest court has ruled that it is OK for the U.K.to unilaterally reverse its decision to leave.